D 3 City project - Economic impact of BIM-assisted design validation

Ghang Lee, Harrison Kwangho Park, Jongsung Won

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports a return-on-investment (ROI) case study of the use of building information modeling (BIM) in "design validation" based on the avoidance costs of rework due to design errors. The ROI was analyzed using the 709 individual design errors found during the BIM design validation of the six high- and medium-rise buildings in the D3 City project in Seoul, Korea. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detecting it before construction. The likelihood of detecting errors in the ROI analysis made a large difference of a factor of four to fifteen. An additional analysis on the potential impact of design errors on the schedule shows that costs associated with schedule delays has a much larger economic impact than rework costs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)577-586
Number of pages10
JournalAutomation in Construction
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Mar

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by a grant titled “06-Unified and Advanced Construction Technology Program-E01” from the Korean Institute of Construction and Transportation Technology Evaluation and Planning (KICTEP) .

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


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