Cytochrome c biogenesis: The Ccm system

Carsten Sanders, Serdar Turkarslan, Dong Woo Lee, Fevzi Daldal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


Cytochromes of c-type contain covalently attached hemes that are formed via thioether bonds between the vinyls of heme b and cysteines within C1XXC2H motifs of apocytochromes. In diverse organisms this post-translational modification relies on membraneassociated specific biogenesis proteins, referred to as cytochrome c maturation (Ccm) systems. A highly complex version of these systems, Ccm or System I, is found in Gram-negative bacteria, archaea and plant mitochondria. We describe emerging functional interactions between the Ccm components categorized into three conserved modules, and present a mechanistic view of the molecular basis of ubiquitous vinyl-2~ys1 and vinyl-4~ys2 heme b-apocytochrome thioether bonds in c-type cytochromes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)266-274
Number of pages9
JournalTrends in Microbiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Jun

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by grants to F.D. from the Department of Energy (91ER 20052) and the National Institutes of Health (GM 38237).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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