Cortisol as a Predictor of Simulation-Based Educational Outcomes in Senior Nursing Students: A Pilot Study

Hyejung Lee, Jeongok Park, Sue Kim, Jihee Han

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Participation in a simulation may cause high levels of stress in students and negatively affect their learning outcomes. This pilot study investigated the association between nursing students' stress and their knowledge acquisition and improvement in self-confidence. Method: This study used a quasiexperimental design. The experimental group (= 12) participated in the birthing simulation. The control group (= 11) watched a video of the normal delivery process. Participants' knowledge, self-confidence, and stress (salivary cortisol levels) were measured before and after the interventions. Twenty-three senior nursing students participated in this study. Results: Regression analyses revealed that being in the experimental group was associated with greater knowledge acquisition and improved self-confidence. Higher cortisol levels were associated with greater knowledge acquisition, and previous simulation experience was associated with improved confidence. Conclusion: The learning outcomes of simulation-based education may vary according to students' emotional status.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-48
Number of pages5
JournalClinical Simulation in Nursing
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Education
  • Nursing (miscellaneous)


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