OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the reliable midsagittal (MS) reference plane in practical ways for the three-dimensional craniofacial analysis on three-dimensional computed tomography images. METHODS: Five normal human dry skulls and 20 normal subjects without any dysmorphoses or asymmetries were used. The accuracies and stability on repeated plane construction for almost every possible candidate MS plane based on the skull base structures were examined by comparing the discrepancies in distances and orientations from the reference points and planes of the skull base and facial bones on three-dimensional computed tomography images. RESULTS: The following reference points of these planes were stable, and their distribution was balanced: nasion and foramen cecum at the anterior part of the skull base, sella at the middle part, and basion and opisthion at the posterior part. CONCLUSIONS: The candidate reference planes constructed using the aforementioned reference points were thought to be reliable for use as an MS reference plane for the three-dimensional analysis of maxillofacial dysmorphosis.
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