The main disadvantage of using poly(lactic‑co‑glycolic acid) (PLGA), a typical synthetic polymer, as a biomaterial is that it induces inflammation. To overcome this disadvantage, we determined the ability of micronized porcine cartilage (MPC) for alleviating the inflammatory effects of a PLGA scaffold. MPC was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate‑polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and typical collagen components were confirmed. The MPC/PLGA scaffolds were fabricated using various concentrations of MPC and the compressive strength was evaluated to characterize its physical properties. Although the compressive strength decreased with increasing amounts of MPC, the roughness of the surface, assessed by scanning election microscopy, was considered to be suitable for facilitating cell attachment. Notably, in vitro experiments showed that the cell adhesion and proliferation rates increased as the MPC content increased. MPC further reduced gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and cellular reactive oxygen species, as determined by real time-polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, respectively. In addition, in vivo experiments confirmed the interaction between tissues and the scaffolds. Overall, these results confirmed that the MPC/PLGA scaffold is superior to the PLGA scaffold in many respects and might be a suitable candidate for resolving the disadvantages of PLGA in tissue engineering applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Fa grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea [grant number: HI15C2996 ].
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.
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