The incidence of myopia is increasing worldwide, and the investigation on pathophysiology of myopia is becoming more important. This retrospective study aimed to compare the thicknesses of individual retinal layers between high-myopic and control eyes, and to evaluate the effects of age and sex on each retinal layer thickness. We assessed 164 subjects and divided them into two groups based on axial length (AL) (i.e., high-myopic group (AL ≥ 26 mm) and control group (AL < 26 mm)). Individual retinal layer thicknesses of five subfields in the macula were measured using automated retinal segmentation software packaged with the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and were compared. In high-myopia group, the thicknesses of total retina and all individual retinal layers in central and entire perifoveal subfields were significantly thicker than the corresponding layers in control group after adjustment for ocular magnification (all P < 0.05). There were no significant effects of sex on individual retinal thicknesses, and age had less negative effects on the thicknesses of retina layers in high-myopic eyes than normal eyes. Axially elongated, non-pathologic highly myopic eyes had different structural features than control eyes, with significantly greater individual macular layer thicknesses independent of sex or age.
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