Coil-protected technique for liquid embolization in neurovascular malformations

Keun Young Park, Jin Woo Kim, Byung Moon Kim, Dong Joon Kim, Joonho Chung, Chang Ki Jang, Jun Hwee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the coil-protected technique for liquid embolization in neurovascular malformations. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two patients who underwent coil-protected liquid embolization for symptomatic cranial (n = 13) and spinal (n = 9) arteriovenous fistula (AVF) or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were identified. A total of 36 target feeder vessels were embolized with N-butyl cyanoacrylate and/or Onyx (Medtronic). This technique was used to promote delivery of a sufficient amount of liquid embolic agent into the target shunt or nidus in cases where tortuous feeding arteries preclude a microcatheter wedging techniqu and/or to prevent reflux of the liquid embolic agent in cases with a short safety margin. The procedure was considered technically successful if the target lesion was sufficiently filled with liquid embolic agent without unintentional reflux. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Technical success was achieved for all 36 target feeders. Post-embolization angiographies revealed complete occlusion in 16 patients and near-complete and partial occlusion in three patients each. There were no treatment-related complications. Of the six patients who showed near-complete or partial occlusion, five received additional treatments: two received stereotactic radiosurgery for cerebral AVM, two underwent surgical removal of cerebral AVM, and one underwent additional embolization by direct puncture for a mandibular AVM. Finally, all patients showed complete (n = 19) or near-complete (n = 3) occlusion of the target AVF or AVM on follow-up angiographies. The presenting neurological symptoms improved completely in 15 patients (68.2%) and partially in seven patients (31.8%). Conclusion: The coil-protected technique is a safe and effective method for liquid embolization, especially in patients with various neurovascular shunts or malformations who could not be successfully treated with conventional techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1285-1292
Number of pages8
JournalKorean journal of radiology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Received February 15, 2019; accepted after revision May 9, 2019. This study was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HC15C1056). *These authors contributed equally to this work. Corresponding author: Byung Moon Kim, MD, PhD, Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03722, Korea. • Tel: (822) 2228-7400 • Fax: (822) 393-3035 • E-mail: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (https:// which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Korean Society of Radiology.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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