Background: This study aimed to assess and compare the clinical value of aqueous humor polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serologic tests in patients diagnosed with suspected infectious uveitis. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, data of 358 patients who were diagnosed with suspected infectious uveitis and who underwent aqueous humor PCR testing were analyzed. PCR and serologic test results were compared with the clinical features. Results: The rates of initial diagnoses for infectious uveitis were higher with PCR (99 patients, 28%) compared to those with serologic tests (38 pateints, 11%). The diagnostic positivity of PCR was 29% for anterior uveitis, 0% for intermediate uveitis, 5% for posterior uveitis, and 30% for panuveitis. In particular, PCR was useful in confirming the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus and varicella-zoster virus infections and Toxoplasma gondii-associated uveitis. For PCR test, the sensitivity was 0.431, specificity was 0.985, and the negative and positive predictive values were 0.506 and 0.980, respectively. For IgM test, the sensitivity was 0.151, specificity was 0.970, and the negative and positive predictive values were 0.403 and 0.895, respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous humor PCR can be a valuable diagnostic tool for confirming the infectious etiology in patients clinically diagnosed with uveitis. PCR had good predictive and diagnostic value for anterior uveitis and panuveitis compared with that for intermediate and posterior uveitis.
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