Immune checkpoint inhibitors have changed the paradigm of treatment options for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) have gained wide attention for their application, which has been shown to result in prolonged survival. Nevertheless, only a limited subset of patients show partial or complete response to PD-1 therapy, and patients who show a response eventually develop resistance to immunotherapy. This article aims to provide an overview of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to anti–PD-1/PD-L1 therapy from the perspective of tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment. In addition, we address the potential therapeutic targets and ongoing clinical trials, focusing mainly on NSCLC.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology