Clinical characteristics and treatments of multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children: a systematic review

K. H. Lee, H. Li, M. H. Lee, S. J. Park, J. S. Kim, Y. J. Han, K. Cho, B. Ha, S. J. Kim, L. Jacob, A. Koyanagi, Jae Il Shin, Ji Hong Kim, L. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) can occur in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is not easy to differentiate MIS-C from severe COVID-19 or Kawasaki disease based on symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of MIS-C. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We searched PubMed/Medline for case series and reports of MIS-C published until June 20, 2020. From a total of nine articles involving 45 cases, various clinical and laboratory data were extracted. Each target case was evaluated by using different diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The average age at onset of MIS-C was 8.6 years. In 80% of cases, the age of patients ranged from 5 to 15 years. Fever (100%) and shock (82%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Sixty percent of cases met the diagnostic criteria for typical or atypical Kawasaki disease. Biomarkers indicative of inflammation, coagulopathy, or cardiac injury were characteristically elevated as follows: ferritin (mean: 1,061 ng/mL), CRP (217 mg/L), ESR (69 mm/hr), IL-6 (214.8 pg/mL), TNFα (63.4 pg/mL), D-dimer (3,220 ng/mL), PT (15.5 s), troponin I (1,006 ng/L), and BNP (12,150 pg/mL). Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered in all target cases, and inotropic agents were commonly used as well. No case of death was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that MIS-C is a serious condition that presents with fever, rash, as well as cardiovascular and gastrointestinal symptoms. Although it is challenging to differentiate MIS-C from Kawasaki disease or severe COVID-19, initiation of appropriate treatments through early diagnosis is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3342-3350
Number of pages9
JournalEuropean Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology (medical)


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