(1) Background: Dental calculus works as a niche wherein pathogenic bacteria proliferate in the oral cavity. Previous studies revealed the anticalculus activity of pyrophosphates, however there was no clinical study that evaluated microbiome changes associated with calculus inhibition. Therefore, the aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the calculus inhibition of pyrophosphate-containing toothpaste and its effect on oral microbiome changes. (2) Methods: Eighty subjects with a calculus index ≥2 on the lingual of the mandibular anterior tooth were randomly allocated to the test group that pyrophosphate-containing toothpaste was given to or the placebo control group. Full mouth debridement and standardized tooth brushing instruction were given before the allocation. Plaque index, gingival index, calculus index, probing depth, and bleeding on probing were measured at the baseline, and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Genomic DNA was extracted from the plaque samples collected at the baseline and at 12 weeks, and 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for microbiome analysis. (3) Results: None of the clinical parameters showed significant differences by visits or groups, except the plaque index of the test group, which reduced significantly between 4 and 12 weeks. A significant difference of microbiome between the baseline and 12 weeks was observed in the test group. Between baseline and 12 weeks, the proportion of Spirochetes decreased in the control group, and the proportions of Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria and Spirochetes in the phylum level and the proportions of Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Capnocytophaga in the genus level decreased in the test group. In the test group, as plaque index decreased, Streptococcus increased, and Fusobacterium and Haemophilus parainfluenza decreased. (4) Conclusion: The use of pyrophosphate-containing toothpaste effectively inhibited the dysbiosis of the oral microbiome and the proliferation of pathogenic species in periodontal disease. Clinically, plaque formation in the pyrophosphate-containing toothpaste group was effectively decreased, however there was no significant change in calculus deposition.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)