Chemically stable multilayered covalent organic nanosheets from covalent organic frameworks via mechanical delamination

Suman Chandra, Sharath Kandambeth, Bishnu P. Biswal, Binit Lukose, Shrikant M. Kunjir, Minakshi Chaudhary, Ravichandar Babarao, Thomas Heine, Rahul Banerjee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

458 Citations (Scopus)


A series of five thermally and chemically stable functionalized covalent organic frameworks (COFs), namely, TpPa-NO2, TpPa-F4, TpBD-(NO2)2, TpBD-Me2, and TpBD-(OMe) 2 were synthesized by employing the solvothermal aldehyde-amine Schiff base condensation reaction. In order to complete the series, previously reported TpPa-1, TpPa-2, and TpBD have also been synthesized, and altogether, eight COFs were fully characterized through powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform IR (FT-IR) spectroscopy, 13C solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. These COFs are crystalline, permanently porous, and stable in boiling water, acid (9 N HCl), and base (3 N NaOH). The synthesized COFs (all eight) were successfully delaminated using a simple, safe, and environmentally friendly mechanical grinding route to transform into covalent organic nanosheets (CONs) and were well characterized via transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Further PXRD and FT-IR analyses confirm that these CONs retain their structural integrity throughout the delamination process and also remain stable in aqueous, acidic, and basic media like the parent COFs. These exfoliated CONs have graphene-like layered morphology (delaminated layers), unlike the COFs from which they were synthesized.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17853-17861
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Chemical Society
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Nov 27

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Colloid and Surface Chemistry


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