Characterization of nonmetallic inclusions in high-manganese and aluminum-alloyed austenitic steels

Joo Hyun Park, Dong Jin Kim, Dong Joon Min

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85 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of Al and Mn contents on the size, composition, and three-dimensional morphologies of inclusions formed in Fe-xMn-yAl (x = 10 and 20 mass pct, y = 1, 3, and 6 mass pct) steels were investigated to enhance our understanding of the inclusion formation behavior in high Mn-Al-alloyed steels. By assuming that the alumina is a dominant oxide compound, the volume fraction of inclusions estimated from the chemical analysis, i.e., insoluble Al, in the Fe-Mn-3Al steels was larger than the inclusion volume fractions in the Fe-Mn-1Al and Fe-Mn- 6Al steels. A similar tendency was found in the analysis of inclusions from a potentiostatic electrolytic extraction method. This finding could be explained from the terminal velocities of the compounds, which was affected by the thermophysical properties of Fe-Mn-Al steels. The inclusions formed in the Fe-Mn-Al-alloyed steels are classified into seven types according to chemistry and morphology: (1) single Al 2O 3 particle, (2) single AlN or AlON particle, (3) MnAl 2O 4 single galaxite spinel particle, (4) Al 2O 3(-Al(O)N) agglomerate, (5) single Mn(S,Se) particle, (6) oxide core with Mn(S,Se) skin (wrap), and (7) Mn(S,Se) core with Al 2O 3(-Al(O)N) aggregate (or bump). The Mn(S,Se) compounds were formed by the contamination of the steels by Se from the electrolytic Mn. Therefore, the raw materials (Mn) should be used carefully in the melting and casting processes of Fe-Mn-Al-alloyed steels.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2316-2324
Number of pages9
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2012 Jul

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys


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