Changes in renal function with long-term exposure to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected adults in Asia

Kedar Joshi, David Boettiger, Stephen Kerr, Takeshi Nishijima, Kinh Van Nguyen, Penh Sun Ly, Man Po Lee, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Wingwai Wong, Pacharee Kantipong, Do Duy Cuong, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Jun Yong Choi, Fujie Zhang, Romanee Chaiwarith, Oon Tek Ng, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Benedict Lim Heng Sim, Tuti Parwati Merati, Evy YunihastutiRossana Ditangco, Jeremy Ross, Sanjay Pujari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Renal disease is common among people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is limited information on the incidence and risk factors associated with renal dysfunction among this population in Asia. Methods: We used data from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database. Patients were included if they started antiretroviral therapy during or after 2003, had a serum creatinine measurement at antiretroviral therapy initiation (baseline), and had at least 2 follow-up creatinine measurements taken ≥3 months apart. Patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were excluded. Chronic kidney disease was defined as 2 consecutive eGFR values ≤60 mL/min/1.73 m2 taken ≥3 months apart. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify factors associated with eGFR change. Competing risk regression adjusted for study site, age and sex, and cumulative incidence plots were used to evaluate factors associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Results: Of 2547 patients eligible for this analysis, tenofovir was being used by 703 (27.6%) at baseline. Tenofovir use, high baseline eGFR, advanced HIV disease stage, and low nadir CD4 were associated with a decrease in eGFR during follow-up. Chronic kidney disease occurred at a rate of 3.4 per 1000 patient/years. Factors associated with CKD were tenofovir use, old age, low baseline eGFR, low nadir CD4, and protease inhibitor use. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to enhance renal monitoring and management capacity among at-risk groups in Asia and improve access to less nephrotoxic antiretrovirals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1209-1216
Number of pages8
JournalPharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Nov

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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