Centaur: A Novel Architecture for Reliable, Low-Wear, High-Density 3D NAND Storage

Chun Yi Liu, Jagadish Kotra, Myoungsoo Jung, Mahmut Taylan Kandemir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Due to the high density storage demand coming from applications from different domains, 3D NAND flash is becoming a promising candidate to replace 2D NAND flash as the dominant non-volatile memory. However, denser 3D NAND presents various performance and reliability issues, which can be addressed by the 3D NAND specific full-sequence program (FSP) operation. The FSP programs multiple pages simultaneously to mitigate the performance degradation caused by the long latency 3D NAND baseline program operations. However, the FSP-enabled 3D NAND-based SSDs introduce lifetime degradation due to the larger write granularities accessed by the FSP. To address the lifetime issue, in this paper, we propose and experimentally evaluate Centaur, a heterogeneous 2D/3D NAND heterogeneous SSD, as a solution. Centaur has three main components: a lifetime-aware inter-NAND request dispatcher, a lifetime-aware inter-NAND work stealer, and a data migration strategy from 2D NAND to 3D NAND. We used twelve SSD workloads to compare Centaur against a state-of-the-art 3D NAND-based SSD with the same capacity. Our experimental results indicate that the SSD lifetime and performance are improved by 3.7x and 1.11x, respectively, when using our 2D/3D heterogeneous SSD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-94
Number of pages2
JournalPerformance Evaluation Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Jul 8

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research is supported by NSF grants 1439021, 1439057, 1409095,

Funding Information:
Intel. Dr. Jung is supported in part by NRF 2016R1C1B2015312, DOE

Funding Information:
Grant (G01190015), and MemRay grant (G01190170). AMD, the

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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