Objectives Immune non-responders (INR) have poor CD4 recovery and are associated with increased risk of serious events despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). A clinically relevant definition for INR is lacking. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of three large cohorts: Infectious Disease Clinic at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center, the US Military HIV Natural History Study and Infectious Disease Program of the Grady Health System in Atlanta, Georgia. Two-stage modeling and joint model (JM) approaches were used to evaluate the association between CD4 (or CD4/CD8 ratio) slope within two years since ART initiation and a composite endpoint (AIDS, serious non-AIDS events and death) after two years of ART. We compared the predictive capacity of four CD4 count metrics (estimated CD4 slope, estimated CD4/CD8 ratio slope during two years following ART initiation and CD4 at 1 and 2 years following ART initiation) using Cox regression models.Results We included 2,422 patients. Mean CD4 slope ( standard error) during two years of ART was 102 2 cells/?l/year (95% confidence interval: 98-106 cells/?l/year), this increase was uniform among the three cohorts (p = 0.80). There were 267 composite events after two years on ART. Using the JM approach, a CD4 slope 100 cells/?L/year or CD4/CD8 ratio slope >0.1 higher rate per year were associated with lower composite endpoint rates (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.80, p = 0.04 and HR = 0.75 p<0.01, respectively). All four CD4 metrics showed modest predictive capacity. Conclusions Using a complex JM approach, CD4 slope and CD4/CD8 ratio slope the first two years after ART initiation were associated with lower rates of the composite outcome. Moreover, the uniformity observed in the mean CD4 slope regardless of the cohort suggests a common CD4 response pattern independent of age or CD4 nadir. Given the consistency observed with CD4 slope, availability and ease of interpretation, this study provides strong rationale for using CD4 gains <100 cells/?l/year to identify patients at risk for adverse events.
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© 2020 Aldrete et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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