Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the aggregation of two pathological proteins, amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau, leading to neuronal and cognitive dysfunction. Clearance of either Aβ or tau aggregates by immunotherapy has become a potential therapy, as these aggregates are found in the brain ahead of the symptom onset. Given that Aβ and tau independently and cooperatively play critical roles in AD development, AD treatments might require therapeutic approaches to eliminate both aggregates together. Objective: We aimed to discover a chemical drug candidate from natural sources for direct dissociation of both insoluble Aβ and tau aggregates through in vitro assessments. Methods: We isolated four borrelidin chemicals from a saltern-derived halophilic actinomycete strain of rare genus Nocardiopsis and simulated their docking interactions with Aβ fibrils. Then, anti-cytotoxic, anti-Aβ, and anti-tau effects of borrelidins were examined by MTT assays with HT22 hippocampal cell line, thioflavin T assays, and gel electrophoresis. Results: When HT22 cells were exposed to Aβ aggregates, the treatment of borrelidins alleviates the Aβ-induced toxicity. These anti-cytotoxic effects can be derived from the inhibitory functions of borrelidins against the Aβ aggregation as shown in thioflavin T and gel electrophoretic analyses. Among them, especially borrelidin, which exhibits the highest probability of docking, not only dissociates Aβ aggregates but also directly regulates tau aggregation. Conclusion: Borrelidin dissociates insoluble Aβ and tau aggregates together and our findings support the view that it is possible to develop an alternative chemical approach mimicking anti-Aβ or anti-tau immunotherapy for clearance of both aggregates.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2021-The authors. Published by IOS Press.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Psychology
- Geriatrics and Gerontology
- Psychiatry and Mental health