Black phosphorous-based human-machine communication interface

Jayraj V. Vaghasiya, Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Jan Vyskočil, Martin Pumera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Assistive technology involving auditory feedback is generally utilized by those who are visually impaired or have speech and language difficulties. Therefore, here we concentrate on an auditory human-machine interface that uses audio as a platform for conveying information between visually or speech-disabled users and society. We develop a piezoresistive tactile sensor based on a black phosphorous and polyaniline (BP@PANI) composite by the facile chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline on cotton fabric. Taking advantage of BP’s puckered honeycomb lattice structure and superior electrical properties as well as the vast wavy fabric surface, this BP@PANI-based tactile sensor exhibits excellent sensitivity, low-pressure sensitivity, reasonable response time, and good cycle stability. For a real-world application, a prototype device employs six BP@PANI tactile sensors that correspond to braille characters and can convert pressed text into audio on reading or typing to assist visually or speech-disabled persons. Overall, this research offers promising insight into the material candidates and strategies for the development of auditory feedback devices based on layered and 2D materials for human-machine interfaces.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Dec

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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