Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors are widely used hypoglycaemic agents and improve glucose metabolism by enhancing the bioavailability of active glucagon-like peptide-1. In this study, we hypothesized that treatment with DPP4 inhibitors may have beneficial effects on nigrostriatal dopamine and longitudinal motor performance in diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease. We classified 697 drug naive patients with de novo Parkinson's disease who had undergone dopamine transporter imaging into three groups according to a prior diagnosis of diabetes and use of DPP4 inhibitors: diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease being treated with (n = 54) or without DPP4 inhibitors (n = 85), and non-diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 558). Diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease being treated with DPP4 inhibitors had a higher baseline dopamine transporter availability in the anterior (2.56 ± 0.74 versus 2.10 ± 0.50; P = 0.016), posterior (1.83 ± 0.69 versus 1.40 ± 0.50; P 5 0.001), and ventral putamina (1.72 ± 0.58 versus 1.35 ± 0.37; P = 0.001) than that in diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease without DPP4 inhibitors. Additionally, diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease being treated with DPP4 inhibitors had higher dopamine transporter availability in the posterior putamen than that in non-diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease (1.83 ± 0.69 versus 1.43 ± 0.59; P 5 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, disease duration, and vascular risk factors, linear regression models showed that a prior treatment of DPP4 inhibitors remained independently and significantly associated with dopamine transporter availability in the anterior (b = -0.186, P = 0.012; b = -0.207, P = 0.003), posterior (b = -0.336, P 5 0.001; b = -0.286, P 5 0.001), and ventral putamina (b = -0.204, P = 0.005; b = -0.250, P 5 0.001). A linear mixed model revealed that the diabetic group with Parkinson's disease being treated with DPP4 inhibitors had a slower longitudinal increase in levodopa-equivalent dose than the other groups (P = 0.003). Survival analyses showed that the rate of levodopa-induced dyskinesia was significantly lower in the diabetic group with a prior treatment with DPP4 inhibitors than the diabetic group without DPP4 inhibitors (hazard ratio = 0.194, P = 0.037). These findings suggest that DPP4 inhibitors may confer beneficial effects on the baseline nigrostriatal dopamine degeneration and long-term motor outcomes in diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease and may extend its role into non-diabetic patients with Parkinson's disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2019R1A2C2085462).
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