Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The materials and device-engineering aspects of the research were supported by the Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics at Northwestern University. This work made use of the NUFAB facility of Northwestern University’s NUANCE Center. Y.S.O is supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education(2020R1I1A1A0107489711). Y.S.O, S.C., H.H., K.K., S.K., M.S.K., J.C., and I.P. are supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) (no. 2018R1A2B200491013). H.J.S. is supported by grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (no. 2020 R1A2C2008106). J. Koo acknowledges the support from the Korea Medical Device Development Fund (the Ministry of Science and ICT, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, the Ministry of Health & Welfare, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety) (KMDF_PR_20200901_0137). Z.X. acknowledges the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 12072057), LiaoNing Revitalization Talents Program (Grant No. XLYC2007196), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. DUT20RC(3)032). Y.H. acknowledges support from NSF(CMMI1635443).
© 2021, The Author(s).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)