Battery-free, wireless soft sensors for continuous multi-site measurements of pressure and temperature from patients at risk for pressure injuries

Yong Suk Oh, Jae Hwan Kim, Zhaoqian Xie, Seokjoo Cho, Hyeonseok Han, Sung Woo Jeon, Minsu Park, Myeong Namkoong, Raudel Avila, Zhen Song, Sung Uk Lee, Kabseok Ko, Jungyup Lee, Je Sang Lee, Weon Gi Min, Byeong Ju Lee, Myungwoo Choi, Ha Uk Chung, Jongwon Kim, Mengdi HanJahyun Koo, Yeon Sik Choi, Sung Soo Kwak, Sung Bong Kim, Jeonghyun Kim, Jungil Choi, Chang Mo Kang, Jong Uk Kim, Kyeongha Kwon, Sang Min Won, Janice Mihyun Baek, Yujin Lee, So Young Kim, Wei Lu, Abraham Vazquez-Guardado, Hyoyoung Jeong, Hanjun Ryu, Geumbee Lee, Kyuyoung Kim, Seunghwan Kim, Min Seong Kim, Jungrak Choi, Dong Yun Choi, Quansan Yang, Hangbo Zhao, Wubin Bai, Hokyung Jang, Yongjoon Yu, Jaeman Lim, Xu Guo, Bong Hoon Kim, Seokwoo Jeon, Charles Davies, Anthony Banks, Hyung Jin Sung, Yonggang Huang, Inkyu Park, John A. Rogers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


Capabilities for continuous monitoring of pressures and temperatures at critical skin interfaces can help to guide care strategies that minimize the potential for pressure injuries in hospitalized patients or in individuals confined to the bed. This paper introduces a soft, skin-mountable class of sensor system for this purpose. The design includes a pressure-responsive element based on membrane deflection and a battery-free, wireless mode of operation capable of multi-site measurements at strategic locations across the body. Such devices yield continuous, simultaneous readings of pressure and temperature in a sequential readout scheme from a pair of primary antennas mounted under the bedding and connected to a wireless reader and a multiplexer located at the bedside. Experimental evaluation of the sensor and the complete system includes benchtop measurements and numerical simulations of the key features. Clinical trials involving two hemiplegic patients and a tetraplegic patient demonstrate the feasibility, functionality and long-term stability of this technology in operating hospital settings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5008
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Dec 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The materials and device-engineering aspects of the research were supported by the Center for Bio-Integrated Electronics at Northwestern University. This work made use of the NUFAB facility of Northwestern University’s NUANCE Center. Y.S.O is supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education(2020R1I1A1A0107489711). Y.S.O, S.C., H.H., K.K., S.K., M.S.K., J.C., and I.P. are supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIT) (no. 2018R1A2B200491013). H.J.S. is supported by grant from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (no. 2020 R1A2C2008106). J. Koo acknowledges the support from the Korea Medical Device Development Fund (the Ministry of Science and ICT, the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy, the Ministry of Health & Welfare, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety) (KMDF_PR_20200901_0137). Z.X. acknowledges the support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 12072057), LiaoNing Revitalization Talents Program (Grant No. XLYC2007196), and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant No. DUT20RC(3)032). Y.H. acknowledges support from NSF(CMMI1635443).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Battery-free, wireless soft sensors for continuous multi-site measurements of pressure and temperature from patients at risk for pressure injuries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this