Background and aims The prognosis of stented lesions differs according to in-stent neointimal characteristics on optical coherence tomography (OCT). In particular, patients who show in-stent heterogeneous neointima are associated with a higher incidence of target lesion revascularization (TLR) compared with those who show in-stent non-heterogeneous neointima. However, the relationship between in-stent neointimal characteristics and native coronary atherosclerosis progression has not been clearly elucidated. The study aimed to investigate the relationship between in-stent neointimal characteristics and progression of native atherosclerosis. Methods The neointimal characteristics of 377 patients with 377 drug-eluting stents (DESs) were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed using OCT. The OCT-based neointima was categorized as homogeneous (n = 207), heterogeneous (n = 93), and layered (n = 77). The relationship of non-target lesion revascularization (non-TLR) with neointimal characteristics was evaluated after OCT examination of the stents. Results After a median follow-up duration of 40.0 months, patients with heterogeneous neointima showed significantly higher non-TLR rates than those with homogeneous neointima and tended to have higher non-TLR rates than those with layered neointima (heterogeneous vs. homogeneous:14.0% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.046; heterogeneous vs. layered neointima:14.0% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.152). Multivariate analysis showed that the independent determinants for non- TLR were heterogeneous neointima (HR: 2.237, 95% CI: 1.023-4.890, p = 0.044) and chronic kidney disease (hazard ratio [HR]: 8.730, 95% CI: 2.175-35.036, p = 0.002). Conclusions The heterogeneous neointima in DES-treated lesions was associated with a higher incidence of non-TLR and target lesion failure. This finding suggests that the neointimal pattern may reflect the progression of the native lesion.
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© 2021 Jung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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