Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension among ambulatory hypertensive patients: A cross-sectional study from 13 general hospitals

Sehun Kim, Jin Joo Park, Mi Seung Shin, Choong Hwan Kwak, Bong Ryeol Lee, Sung Ji Park, Hae Young Lee, Sang Hyun Kim, Seok Min Kang, Byung Su Yoo, Joong Wha Chung, Si Wan Choi, Sang Ho Jo, Jinho Shin, Dong Ju Choi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background/Aims: To examine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension among ambulatory hypertensive patients. Methods: We enrolled adult ambulatory hypertensive patients at 13 well-qualified general hospitals in Korea from January to June 2012. Apparent resistant hypertension was defined as an elevated blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg with the use of three antihypertensive agents, including diuretics, or ≥ 4 antihypertensives, regardless of the blood pressure. Controlled hypertension was defined as a blood pressure within the target using three antihypertensives, including diuretics. Results: Among 16,915 hypertensive patients, 1,172 (6.9%) had controlled hypertension, and 1,514 (8.9%) had apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. Patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension had an earlier onset of hypertension (56.8 years vs. 58.8 years, p = 0.007) and higher body mass index (26.3 kg/m2 vs. 24.9 kg/m2, p < 0.001) than those with controlled hypertension. Drug compliance did not differ between groups. In the multivariable analysis, earlier onset of hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99; p < 0.001) and the presence of comorbidities (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.35; p < 0.001), such as diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, were independent predictors. Among the patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension, only 5.2% were receiving ≥ 2 antihypertensives at maximally tolerated doses. Conclusions: Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension prevalence is 8.9% among ambulatory hypertensive patients in Korea. An earlier onset of hypertension and the presence of comorbidities are independent predictors. Optimization of medical treatment may reduce the rate of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)888-897
Number of pages10
JournalKorean Journal of Internal Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was funded by Handok Inc.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Korean Association of Internal Medicine.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Internal Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension among ambulatory hypertensive patients: A cross-sectional study from 13 general hospitals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this