Antifibrotic TSG-6 Expression Is Synergistically Increased in Both Cells during Coculture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Macrophages via the JAK/STAT Signaling Pathway

Seong Chan Gong, Yongdae Yoon, Pil Young Jung, Moon Young Kim, Soon Koo Baik, Hoon Ryu, Young Woo Eom

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β upregulate TNF-α-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6); however, current knowledge about the optimal conditions for TSG-6 expression in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is limited. Here, we investigated whether TSG-6 expression varies depending on the polarization state of macrophages co-cultured with adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) and analyzed the optimal conditions for TSG-6 expression in ASCs. TSG-6 expression increased in ASCs co-cultured with M0, M1, and M2 macrophages indirectly; among them, M1 macrophages resulted in the highest increase in TSG-6 expression in ASCs. TSG-6 expression in ASCs dramatically increased by combination (but not single) treatment of TNF-α, IL-1β, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1/3 was observed in response to IFN-γ and LPS treatment but not TNF-α and/or IL-1β. STAT1/3 activation synergistically increased TNF-α/IL-1β-dependent TSG-6 expression, and JAK inhibitors suppressed TSG-6 expression both in ASCs and macrophages. In LX-2 hepatic stellate cells, TSG-6 inhibited TGF-β-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, resulting in decreased α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression. Moreover, fibrotic activities of LX-2 cells induced by TGF-β were dramatically decreased after indirect co-culture with ASCs and M1 macrophages. These results suggest that a comprehensive inflammatory microenvironment may play an important role in determining the therapeutic properties of ASCs by increasing TSG-6 expression through STAT1/3 activation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13122
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume23
Issue number21
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Nov

Bibliographical note

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© 2022 by the authors.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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