An expanded HIV care cascade: ART uptake, viral load suppression and comorbidity monitoring among adults living with HIV in Asia

IeDEA Asia-Pacific

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Comprehensive treatment and clinical management are central to improving outcomes for people living with HIV (PLHIV). We explored trends in HIV clinical care, treatment outcomes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes monitoring. Methods: We included patients ≥18 years in care at ten clinical sites in eight Asian countries. Proportions of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), with annual viral load, and with viral load suppression (VLS; <1,000 copies/ml) were estimated by year for 2011- 2016, stratified by country income level (lower-middle income [LMIC] and high-income countries [HIC]). Among those on ART in 2016 we evaluated factors associated with annual CKD and diabetes monitoring. Results: Among 31,346 patients (67% male), the proportions of patients on ART (median ART initiation year 2011, IQR 2007-2013), with annual viral load and VLS had substantially increased by 2016 (to 94%, 42% and 92%, respectively, in LMIC and 95%, 97% and 93%, respectively, in HIC) with the larger increases over time seen in LMIC. Among those on ART in 2016, monitoring proportions in LMIC were 53% for CKD and 26% for diabetes compared with 83% and 59%, respectively, in HIC. Overall, a decreased odds of monitoring was observed for male gender, heterosexual HIV exposure, no viral load and LMIC. Diabetes monitoring was also decreased in those with viral failure. Conclusions: Our findings highlight suboptimal monitoring of viral load, CKD and diabetes in PLHIV in Asia. There is a need for affordable and scalable monitoring options to improve the joint care for HIV and non-communicable diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-285
Number of pages11
JournalAntiviral therapy
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database Low-Intensity TransfEr study is an initiative of TREAT Asia, a programme of amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, with support from the US National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Mental Health, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and the Fogarty International Center, as part of the International Epidemiology Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA; U01AI069907). The Kirby Institute is funded by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, and is affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Sydney. The PhD of R Bijker has been supported through an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship. The content of this publication is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of any of the governments or institutions mentioned above. Supplementary acknowledgements can be found in Additional file 1.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 International Medical Press.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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