An epiduroscopy simulator based on a serious game for spatial cognitive training (epidurosim): User-centered design approach

Junho Ko, Jong Joo Lee, Seong Wook Jang, Yeomin Yun, Sungchul Kang, Dong Ah Shin, Yoon Sang Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Performing high-level surgeries with endoscopy is challenging, and hence, an efficient surgical training method or system is required. Serious game-based simulators can provide a trainee-centered educational environment unlike traditional teacher-centered education environments since serious games provide a high level of interaction (feedback that induces learning). Objective: This study aimed to propose an epiduroscopy simulator, EpiduroSIM, based on a serious game for spatial cognitive training. Methods: EpiduroSIM was designed based on a serious game. For spatial cognitive training, the virtual environment of EpiduroSIM was modeled based on a cognitive map. Results: EpiduroSIM was developed considering user accessibility to provide various functions. The experiment for the validation of EpiduroSIM focused on psychological fidelity and repetitive training effects. The experiments were conducted by dividing 16 specialists into 2 groups of 8 surgeons. The group was divided into beginner and expert based on their epiduroscopy experience. The psychological fidelity of EpiduroSIM was confirmed through the training results of the expert group rather than the beginner group. In addition, the repetitive training effect of EpiduroSIM was confirmed by improving the training results in the beginner group. Conclusions: EpiduroSIM may be useful for training beginner surgeons in epiduroscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12678
JournalJMIR Serious Games
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jul 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 JMIR Rehabilitation and Assistive Technologies. All rights reserved.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biomedical Engineering


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