All-solution-processed indium-free transparent composite electrodes based on Ag nanowire and metal oxide for thin-film solar cells

Areum Kim, Yulim Won, Kyoohee Woo, Sunho Jeong, Jooho Moon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

173 Citations (Scopus)


Fully solution-processed Al-doped ZnO/silver nanowire (AgNW)/Al-doped ZnO/ZnO multi-stacked composite electrodes are introduced as a transparent, conductive window layer for thin-film solar cells. Unlike conventional sol-gel synthetic pathways, a newly developed combustion reaction-based sol-gel chemical approach allows dense and uniform composite electrodes at temperatures as low as 200 °C. The resulting composite layer exhibits high transmittance (93.4% at 550 nm) and low sheet resistance (11.3 Ω sq-1), which are far superior to those of other solution-processed transparent electrodes and are comparable to their sputtered counterparts. Conductive atomic force microscopy reveals that the multi-stacked metal-oxide layers embedded with the AgNWs enhance the photocarrier collection efficiency by broadening the lateral conduction range. This as-developed composite electrode is successfully applied in Cu(In1-x,Gax)S2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells and exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 11.03%. The fully solution-processed indium-free composite films demonstrate not only good performance as transparent electrodes but also the potential for applications in various optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices as a cost-effective and sustainable alternative electrode. A composite transparent electrode using silver nanowire (AgNW) with sol-gel driven ZnO and AZO (Al doped ZnO) is demonstrated with high transmittance (T = 93%) and low sheet resistance (R S = 11.3 Ω sq-1). It applied on the Cu(In 1-x,Gax)S2 thin film solar cell showing high efficiency about 11.03%. Current-atomic force microscopy analysis is performed to understand lateral conduction behavior of A/AgNW/AZ composite under illumination.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2462-2471
Number of pages10
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2014 May 2

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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