All-Hand-Drawn Zn–Air Batteries: Toward User-Customized On-the-Fly Power Sources

Keun Ho Choi, Hyun Woo Kim, Seong Sun Lee, Jong Tae Yoo, Dong Gue Lee, Sang Young Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


The upcoming ubiquitous era, which will foresee the widespread popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) and wearable electronics, is in urgent need of high-performance/flexible power sources with various form factors. Here, a new class of user-customized, on-the-fly power source based on an all-hand-drawn primary zinc (Zn)–air battery system is demonstrated. The all-hand-drawn Zn–air batteries are fabricated directly on A4 paper (serving as a mechanical substrate and gas diffusion layer) under ambient conditions by using a simple pen/pencil-based hand drawing technique. The Zn–air batteries consist of pen-drawn silver current collectors, pen-drawn Zn anodes, pencil-drawn carbon air cathodes, and pen-drawn gel electrolytes. Notably, oil painting-inspired Zn anode ink presents well-tailored rheological properties for the pen drawing. Subsequent UV curing enables the pen-drawn Zn anode to show dimensional stability and long-term structural integrity. The resulting Zn–air batteries exhibit reliable electrochemical performance and on-demand control of cell voltage/capacity. The all-hand-drawn Zn–air batteries are aesthetically unitized with various IoT devices including an e-sketch of a light bulb and a smart paper lampshade as an unprecedented on-the-fly power source, underscoring the exceptional process simplicity, ubiquitous portability and design versatility that lie far beyond those achievable with conventional battery technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1700132
JournalAdvanced Sustainable Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2018 May 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • General Environmental Science


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