Aging Monitoring Method for Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Harmonic Analysis

Seon Hyeog Kim, Hyeong Min Lee, Yong June Shin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Monitoring the aging battery cells is important to maintain battery performance. Capacity is a key indicator of battery aging diagnosis, but capacity can be estimated differently depending on the C-rate. Battery impedance monitoring using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is also recognized as a battery diagnostic method. However, EIS is inefficient when diagnosing a large number of individual battery cells due to complex computation and measurement time. In this article, a harmonic analysis method for monitoring aging battery is proposed. The proposed diagnostic technique applies the designed 1-kHz sinusoidal signal, comprising a sinusoidal current component and a direct current component, to the battery. Harmonics are generated when signals passing through nonlinear systems are distorted. A battery is an asymmetric nonlinear system with different bidirectionality. Comparing the simulation and experimental results, we confirmed that the harmonic signatures are the indicators that distinguish between a normal and an aging battery. Moreover, the proposed in situ technique can be applied during charge/discharge cycles, even in the case of an apparent reduction of even harmonics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9285314
JournalIEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1963-2012 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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