Purpose: Acute epididymitis is considered to have an important role in children with scrotal pain. Recent reports have shown that urinalysis is not helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of acute epididymitis owing to negative microbiological findings. Therefore, we analyzed clinical and laboratory characteristics to examine the diagnostic yield of urinalysis in children. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 139 patients who were diagnosed with acute epididymitis from 2005 to 2011. Diagnosis was based on symptoms, physical findings, and color Doppler ultrasonography (DUS). To investigate the characteristics of epididymitis in children, the patients were divided into 3 groups: group A (aged less than 18 years, 76 patients), group B (18 to 35 years old, 19 patients), and group C (older than 35 years, 44 patients). Results: There were statistically significant differences in age, symptom duration, hospital stays, and lesion location in each group. White blood cell count and serum C-reactive protein levels, pyuria, and positive urine culture results were statistically higher in the older age group. The most common cause of acute epididymitis in children was idiopathic (96.1%). Conclusions: In our group of children with epididymitis, 73 cases out of 76 (96.1%) resulted in negative pyuria in urinalysis. In addition, the most common cause of epididymitis was idiopathic. Because most urinalyses do not show pyuria, we believe that routine antibiotics may be not required in pediatric patients with epididymitis. If urinalysis shows pyuria with or without positive urine culture, antibiotics should be considered.
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