Active locomotion of a paddling-based capsule endoscope in an in vitro and in vivo experiment (with videos)

Hee Man Kim, Sungwook Yang, Jinseok Kim, Semi Park, Jae Hee Cho, Jeong Youp Park, Tae Song Kim, Eui Sung Yoon, Si Young Song, Seungmin Bang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

126 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Capsule endoscopy that could actively move and approach a specific site might be more valuable for the diagnosis or treatment of GI diseases. Objective: We tested the performance of active locomotion of a novel wired capsule endoscope with a paddling-based locomotion mechanism, using 3 models: a silicone tube, an extracted porcine colon, and a living pig. Design: In vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo experiments in a pig model. Setting: Study in an animal laboratory. Interventions: For the in vitro test, the locomotive capsule was controlled to actively move from one side of a silicone tube to the other by a controller-operated automatic traveling program. The velocity was calculated by following a video recording. We performed ex vivo tests by using an extracted porcine colon in the same manner we performed the in vitro test. In in vivo experiments, the capsule was inserted into the rectum of a living pig under anesthesia, and was controlled to move automatically forward. After 8 consecutive trials, the velocity was calculated. Main Outcome Measurements: Elapsed time, velocity, and mucosal damage. Results: The locomotive capsule showed stable and active movement inside the lumen both in vitro and ex vivo. The velocity was 60 cm/min in the silicone tube, and 36.8 and 37.5 cm/min in the extracted porcine colon. In the in vivo experiments, the capsule stably moved forward inside the colon of a living pig without any serious complications. The mean velocity was 17 cm/min over 40 cm length. We noted pinpoint erythematous mucosal injuries in the colon. Limitation: Porcine model experiments, wired capsule endoscope. Conclusions: The novel paddling-based locomotive capsule endoscope performed fast and stable movement in a living pig colon with consistent velocity. Further investigation is necessary for practical use in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-387
Number of pages7
JournalGastrointestinal endoscopy
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
DISCLOSURE: All authors disclosed no financial relationships relevant to this publication. (Research support for this study was provided by the Intelligent Microsystem Center , which carries out one of the 21st Century Frontier R&D Projects sponsored by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea.)

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology


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