Background: The osteogenic capabilities and biodegradability of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) composites make them unique. Despite the excellent characteristics of OCP, their use is limited due to handling difficulties. In this study, we aimed to evaluate and compare three types of OCPs (cemented OCP (C-OCP), C-OCP with collagen (OCP/Col), and synthetic OCP (S-OCP) with alginate (OCP/Alg)) versus commercially available β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) regarding their potential to accelerate bone formation in defective rat tibias. Methods: The specimens with OCP composite were manufactured into 5 mm cubes and inserted into the segmental defects of rat tibias fixed with an external fixator. In addition, 3 mm-hole defects in rat tibias were evaluated to compare the graft material properties in different clinical situations. Serial X-ray studies were evaluated weekly and the tibias were harvested at postoperative 6 weeks or 8 weeks for radiologic evaluation. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed to evaluate the acceleration of bone formation. Results: In the critical-defect model, OCP/Alg showed bone bridges between segmentally resected bone ends that were comparable to those of β-TCP. However, differences were observed in the residual graft materials. Most β-TCP was maintained until 8 weeks postoperatively; however, OCP/Alg was more biodegradable. In addition calcification in the β-TCP occurred at the directly contacted area between graft particles and bony ingrowth was observed in the region adjacent resected surface of tibia. In contrast, no direct bony ingrowth was observed in OCP-based materials, but osteogenesis induced from resected surface of tibia was more active. In the hole-defect model, OCP/Col accelerated bone formation. β-TCP and OCP/Alg showed similar patterns with relatively higher biodegradability. In histology, among the OCP-based materials, directly contacted new bone was formed only in OCP/Alg group. The new bone formation in the periphery area of graft materials was much more active in the OCP-based materials, and the newly formed bone showed a thicker trabecular and more mature appearance than the β-TCP group. Conclusions: In this study, OCP/Alg was equivalent to β-TCP in the acceleration of bone formation with better biodegradability appropriate for clinical situations in different circumstances. Our OCP/Col composite showed fast degradation, which makes it unsuitable for use in mechanical stress conditions in clinical orthopedic settings. The Translational Potential of this Article: In our research, we compared our various manufactured OCP composites to commercially available β-TCP in critical-defect rat tibia model. OCP/Col showed acceleration in hole-defect model as previous studies in dental field but in our critical-sized defect model it resorbed fast without acceleration of bony union. OCP/Alg showed matched results compared to β-TCP and relatively fast resorption so we showed market value in special clinical indication depending on treatment strategy. This is the first OCP composite study in orthopaedics with animal critical-sized tibia bone study and further study should be considered for clinical application based on this study.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine