Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is a complex condition characterized by multiple pathophysiological mechanisms including amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque accumulation and neuroinflammation in the brain. The current immunotherapy approaches, such as anti-Aβ monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, Aβ vaccines, and adoptive regulatory T (Treg) cell transfer, target a single pathophysiological mechanism, which may lead to unsatisfactory therapeutic efficacy. Furthermore, Aβ vaccines often induce T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated inflammatory responses. Here, a nanovaccine composed of lipid nanoparticles loaded with Aβ peptides and rapamycin is developed, which targets multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, exhibits the combined effects of anti-Aβ antibody therapy and adoptive Aβ-specific Treg cell transfer, and can overcome the limitations of current immunotherapy approaches for AD. The Nanovaccine effectively delivers rapamycin and Aβ peptides to dendritic cells, produces both anti-Aβ antibodies and Aβ-specific Treg cells, removes Aβ plaques in the brain, alleviates neuroinflammation, prevents Th1 cell-mediated excessive immune responses, and inhibits cognitive impairment in mice. The nanovaccine shows higher efficacy in cognitive recovery than an Aβ vaccine. Unlike anti-Aβ mAb therapy and adoptive Treg cell transfer, both of which require complicated and costly manufacturing processes, the nanovaccine is easy-to-prepare and cost-effective. The nanovaccines can represent a novel treatment option for AD.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Materials Science
- Mechanics of Materials
- Mechanical Engineering