A survey on hybrid beamforming techniques in 5G: Architecture and system model perspectives

Irfan Ahmed, Hedi Khammari, Adnan Shahid, Ahmed Musa, Kwang Soon Kim, Eli De Poorter, Ingrid Moerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

370 Citations (Scopus)


The increasing wireless data traffic demands have driven the need to explore suitable spectrum regions for meeting the projected requirements. In the light of this, millimeter wave (mmWave) communication has received considerable attention from the research community. Typically, in fifth generation (5G) wireless networks, mmWave massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications is realized by the hybrid transceivers which combine high dimensional analog phase shifters and power amplifiers with lower-dimensional digital signal processing units. This hybrid beamforming design reduces the cost and power consumption which is aligned with an energy-efficient design vision of 5G. In this paper, we track the progress in hybrid beamforming for massive MIMO communications in the context of system models of the hybrid transceivers' structures, the digital and analog beamforming matrices with the possible antenna configuration scenarios and the hybrid beamforming in heterogeneous wireless networks. We extend the scope of the discussion by including resource management issues in hybrid beamforming. We explore the suitability of hybrid beamforming methods, both, existing and proposed till first quarter of 2017, and identify the exciting future challenges in this domain.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8371237
Pages (from-to)3060-3097
Number of pages38
JournalIEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Oct 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received May 14, 2017; revised October 14, 2017 and April 6, 2018; accepted May 22, 2018. Date of publication June 4, 2018; date of current version November 19, 2018. This work was supported in part by the Agency for Innovation by Science and Technology, Flanders through SAMURAI Project (www.samurai-project.be) under Grant IWT140048, in part by the European Horizon 2020 Programme through eWINE Project (www.ewine-project.eu) under Grant 688116 and ORCA Project (https://www.orca-project.eu) under Grant 732174, and in part by the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (www.kacst.edu.sa) Project under Grant PC-37-66. (Corresponding author: Irfan Ahmed.) I. Ahmed is with the Department of Electrical Engineering, Higher Colleges of Technology, Ruwais 32092, UAE (e-mail: iahmed3@hct.ac.ae).

Publisher Copyright:
© 1998-2012 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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