A hybrid constructed wetland for organic-material and nutrient removal from sewage: Process performance and multi-kinetic models

X. Cuong Nguyen, S. Woong Chang, Thi Loan Nguyen, H. Hao Ngo, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, J. Rajesh Banu, M. Cuong Vu, H. Sinh Le, D. Duc Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


A pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetland with vertical flow and horizontal flow in series was constructed and used to investigate organic material and nutrient removal rate constants for wastewater treatment and establish a practical predictive model for use. For this purpose, the performance of multiple parameters was statistically evaluated during the process and predictive models were suggested. The measurement of the kinetic rate constant was based on the use of the first-order derivation and Monod kinetic derivation (Monod) paired with a plug flow reactor (PFR) and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Both the Lindeman, Merenda, and Gold (LMG) analysis and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method were employed for identifying the relative importance of variables and their optimal multiple regression (MR). The results showed that the first-order–PFR (M2) model did not fit the data (P > 0.05, and R2 < 0.5), whereas the first-order–CSTR (M1) model for the chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and Monod–CSTR (M3) model for the CODCr and ammonium nitrogen (NH4−N) showed a high correlation with the experimental data (R2 > 0.5). The pollutant removal rates in the case of M1 were 0.19 m/d (CODCr) and those for M3 were 25.2 g/m2∙d for CODCr and 2.63 g/m2∙d for NH4-N. By applying a multi-variable linear regression method, the optimal empirical models were established for predicting the final effluent concentration of five days' biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and NH4-N. In general, the hydraulic loading rate was considered an important variable having a high value of relative importance, which appeared in all the optimal predictive models.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)378-384
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Sept 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by grants from the Korea Ministry of Environment as an “Algae Monitoring & Removing Utilization Technology” (Project No. 2015001790001 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Ltd

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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