A Deep Learning Ensemble Method to Visual Acuity Measurement Using Fundus Images

Jin Hyun Kim, Eunah Jo, Seungjae Ryu, Sohee Nam, Somin Song, Yong Seop Han, Tae Seen Kang, Woongsup Lee, Seongjin Lee, Kyong Hoon Kim, Hyunju Choi, Seunghwan Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Visual acuity (VA) is a measure of the ability to distinguish shapes and details of objects at a given distance and is a measure of the spatial resolution of the visual system. Vision is one of the basic health indicators closely related to a person’s quality of life. It is one of the first basic tests done when an eye disease develops. VA is usually measured by using a Snellen chart or E-chart from a specific distance. However, in some cases, such as the unconsciousness of patients or diseases, i.e., dementia, it can be impossible to measure the VA using such traditional chart-based methodologies. This paper provides a machine learning-based VA measurement methodology that determines VA only based on fundus images. In particular, the levels of VA, conventionally divided into 11 levels, are grouped into four classes and three machine learning algorithms, one SVM model and two CNN models, are combined into an ensemble method in order to predict the corresponding VA level from a fundus image. Based on a performance evaluation conducted using randomly selected 4000 fundus images, we confirm that our ensemble method can estimate with 82.4% of the average accuracy for four classes of VA levels, in which each class of Class 1 to Class 4 identifies the level of VA with 88.5%, 58.8%, 88%, and 94.3%, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper on VA measurements based on fundus images using deep machine learning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3190
JournalApplied Sciences (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Mar 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Materials Science
  • Instrumentation
  • General Engineering
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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