Denosumab has been suggested as a first-line therapy for osteoporotic patients. However, a standardized protocol for the prevention of denosumab induced medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) has not yet been established. The purpose of this study was to report denosumab induced MRONJ cases, and investigate the factors affecting the occurrence of MRONJ in patients who underwent denosumab and invasive dental treatment (especially tooth extraction) between October 2016 and March 2020. Four of the 98 patients developed MRONJ before and after tooth extraction. The participants were divided into two groups: receiving only denosumab (n = 51) and receiving bisphosphonate as first treatment and denosumab as second treatment (n = 47). There was no significant difference between groups in the occurrence of MRONJ and factors affecting MRONJ. Two out of 4 patients developed MRONJ regardless of invasive treatment after denosumab administration and proceeded with extraction; one patient developed MRONJ after denosumab administration and extraction. The other patient underwent a tooth extraction without osteoporosis treatment, and non-identified MRONJ developed after denosumab administration. MRONJ cases reported in this study show that MRONJ can develop as chronic inflammation without invasive dental treatment; therefore, implementing preventive dental treatment before initiating denosumab treatment is necessary to reduce the occurrence of MRONJ.
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