3D visual discomfort predictor: Analysis of horizontal disparity and neural activity statistics

Jincheol Park, Heeseok Oh, Sanghoon Lee, Alan Conrad Bovik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Citations (Scopus)


Being able to predict the degree of visual discomfort that is felt when viewing stereoscopic 3D (S3D) images is an important goal toward ameliorating causative factors, such as excessive horizontal disparity, misalignments or mismatches between the left and right views of stereo pairs, or conflicts between different depth cues. Ideally, such a model should account for such factors as capture and viewing geometries, the distribution of disparities, and the responses of visual neurons. When viewing modern 3D displays, visual discomfort is caused primarily by changes in binocular vergence while accommodation in held fixed at the viewing distance to a flat 3D screen. This results in unnatural mismatches between ocular fixations and ocular focus that does not occur in normal direct 3D viewing. This accommodation vergence conflict can cause adverse effects, such as headaches, fatigue, eye strain, and reduced visual ability. Binocular vision is ultimately realized by means of neural mechanisms that subserve the sensorimotor control of eye movements. Realizing that the neuronal responses are directly implicated in both the control and experience of 3D perception, we have developed a model-based neuronal and statistical framework called the 3D visual discomfort predictor (3D-VDP) that automatically predicts the level of visual discomfort that is experienced when viewing S3D images. 3D-VDP extracts two types of features: 1) coarse features derived from the statistics of binocular disparities and 2) fine features derived by estimating the neural activity associated with the processing of horizontal disparities. In particular, we deploy a model of horizontal disparity processing in the extrastriate middle temporal region of occipital lobe. We compare the performance of 3D-VDP with other recent discomfort prediction algorithms with respect to correlation against recorded subjective visual discomfort scores, and show that 3D-VDP is statistically superior to the other methods.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6990512
Pages (from-to)1101-1114
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Mar 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2014 IEEE.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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