3D Printing Temperature Tailors Electrical and Electrochemical Properties through Changing Inner Distribution of Graphite/Polymer

Christian Iffelsberger, Cameron W. Jellett, Martin Pumera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


The rise of 3D printing technology, with fused deposition modeling as one of the simplest and most widely used techniques, has empowered an increasing interest for composite filaments, providing additional functionality to 3D-printed components. For future applications, like electrochemical energy storage, energy conversion, and sensing, the tuning of the electrochemical properties of the filament and its characterization is of eminent importance to improve the performance of 3D-printed devices. In this work, customized conductive graphite/poly(lactic acid) filament with a percentage of graphite filler close to the conductivity percolation limit is fabricated and 3D-printed into electrochemical devices. Detailed scanning electrochemical microscopy investigations demonstrate that 3D-printing temperature has a dramatic effect on the conductivity and electrochemical performance due to a changed conducive filler/polymer distribution. This may allow, e.g., 3D printing of active/inactive parts of the same structure from the same filament when changing the 3D printing nozzle temperature. These tailored properties can have profound influence on the application of these 3D-printed composites, which can lead to a dramatically different functionality of the final electrical, electrochemical, and energy storage device.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2101233
Issue number24
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jun 17

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the project Advanced Functional Nanorobots (reg. No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000444 financed by the EFRR). C.I. acknowledges the financial support by the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programm under the Marie Skłodowska‐Curie grant agreement No. 888797. M.P. thanks to Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (Czech Republic) grant LL2002 under ERC CZ program. C.I gratefully acknowledges the CzechNanoLab project LM2018110 funded by MEYS CR for the financial support of the measurements/sample fabrication at CEITEC Nano Research Infrastructure. The authors thank Dr. Gao, Dr. Ghosh and Dr. Novotný for the scientific discussion.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Small published by Wiley-VCH GmbH

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomaterials
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)


Dive into the research topics of '3D Printing Temperature Tailors Electrical and Electrochemical Properties through Changing Inner Distribution of Graphite/Polymer'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this