3D-printed Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrodes

Nasuha Rohaizad, Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez, Filip Novotný, Richard D. Webster, Martin Pumera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


Three-dimensional (3D) printing offers the advantages of customisation, reproducibility and rapid production. In parallel, there is a demand for electrochemical components designed for miniaturisation or customisation of devices. Herein we report a straightforward, fast and simple method to prepare an Ag/AgCl pseudo-reference electrode primarily based on 3D printing using a graphene/polylactic acid filament. The fabrication process involves electrodeposition of silver followed by bleaching to form AgCl on the surface of the electrode. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the fabrication process. Open circuit potential measurements against commercial Ag/AgCl reference electrodes reveal a difference of 14 ± 0.3 mV. Nonetheless, the values are stable and reproducible, fulfilling the necessary requirements of a reference electrode. The performance of the 3D-printed pseudo-reference electrode was tested via cyclic voltammetry in two redox systems, [Fe(CN)6]3 /4 and [Ru(NH3)6]2+/3+. Fabrication of stable 3D-printed reference electrodes represents a key step in the production of fully 3D-printable electrochemical systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-108
Number of pages5
JournalElectrochemistry Communications
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
M.P. acknowledges the financial support of Grant Agency of the Czech Republic (EXPRO: 19-26896X ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Authors

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrochemistry


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