3D image copyright protection based on cellular automata transform and direct smart pixel mapping

Xiao Wei Li, Seok Tae Kim, In Kwon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a three-dimensional (3D) watermarking system with the direct smart pixel mapping algorithm to improve the resolution of the reconstructed 3D watermark plane images. The depth-converted elemental image array (EIA) is obtained through the computational pixel mapping method. In the watermark embedding process, the depth-converted EIA is first scrambled by using the Arnold transform, which is then embedded in the middle frequency of the cellular automata (CA) transform. Compared with conventional computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) methods, this proposed scheme gives us a higher resolution of the reconstructed 3D plane images by using the quality-enhanced depth-converted EIA. The proposed method, which can obtain many transform planes for embedding watermark data, uses CA transforms with various gateway values. To prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, we present the results of our preliminary experiments.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)92-102
Number of pages11
JournalOptics Communications
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Oct 15

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MEST) (No. 2011-0028568 ).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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