Although protein kinase C (PKC) regulates various biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, tissue remodeling, gene expression, and cell death, the antifibrotic effect of PKC in myofibroblasts is not fully understood. We investigated whether 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a PKC activator, reduced the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and explored the involvement of the Hippo pathway transcriptional coactivator YAP. We analyzed the effect of TPA on the proliferation and expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the LX-2 HSC line. We also analyzed the phosphorylation of the Hippo pathway molecules YAP and LATS1 and investigated YAP nuclear translocation. We examined whether Gö 6983, a pan-PKC inhibitor, restored the TPA-inhibited activities of HSCs. Administration of TPA decreased the growth rate of LX-2 cells and inhibited the expression of α-SMA and collagen type I alpha 1 (COL1A1). In addition, TPA induced phosphorylation of PKCδ, LATS1, and YAP and inhibited the nuclear translocation of YAP compared with the control. These TPA-induced phenomena were mostly ameliorated by Gö 6983. Our results indicate that PKCδ exerts an antifibrotic effect by inhibiting the Hippo pathway in HSCs. Therefore, PKCδ and YAP can be used as therapeutic targets for the treatment of fibrotic diseases.
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology