Adapting “Color Blindness” to South Korean Attitudes Toward Multicultural Minorities: Scale Development

Keun Young Baek, Young Seok Seo, Ae Ran Kim, Jinlan Piao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Four studies were conducted to develop and validate the South Korean Attitudes Toward Multicultural Minorities Scale (SKAMMS). Exploratory factor analysis (n = 336) identified three factors: Unawareness of South Korean Privilege and Discrimination against Multicultural Minorities, Attitudes Against Multiculturalism, and Attitudes Against Advocacy and Policy for Multicultural Minorities. Confirmatory factor analysis (n = 537) provided cross-validation of the 16-item, three-factor model and identified that a three-factor bifactor model best fit the data. Correlational analyses provided evidence of the discriminant and convergent validities of the SKAMMS. Evidence of incremental validity of the SKAMMS was obtained (n = 165), where the SKAMMS accounted for additional variance in criterion variables (i.e., cognitive, affective, and behavioral reactions toward racism) above other measures of attitudes toward multicultural minorities. The estimated 2-week test-retest reliabilities (n = 53) ranged from.67 to.82. We discuss implications for the use of the SKAMMS for practice, advocacy, education/training, and research.

Translated title of the contribution다문화인에 대한 한국인의 태도 척도 개발: 인종몰인식주의(Color-Blindness)의 관점으로
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-390
Number of pages38
JournalCounseling Psychologist
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Applied Psychology


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